Breast Cancer Information and Early Detection Tips Ages 18 to 27
WHAT IS BREAST CANCER?
Cancers are a group of diseases that cause cells in the body to change and grow out of control. Most types of cancer cells form a lump or mass called a tumor and are named after the part of the body where the tumor orignates. Therefore, breast cancer begins in the breast, which consists of glands for milk production called lobules, and the ducts that connect the lobules to the nipple. The remainder of the breast is made up of fatty, connective, and lymphatic tissue.
*Illustration from Dr. Susan Love's Breast Book
WHAT IS YOUR RISK?
An estimated 212,920 new cases of invasive (cancer that has spread beyond the point of origination) breast cancer, as well as an additional 61,980 cases of in situ (cancer that has not yet spread) breast cancer were diagnosed in 2006.
An estimated 41,430 women died from breast cancer in 2006.
Incidence rates for breast cancer in the United States increased 4 percent each year during the 1980s, due to the greater use of mammography, which can detect tumors much earlier than manual exams. The number of new breast cancer cases leveled off in the 1990s.
Mortality rates declined by 2.3 percent annually between 1990 and 2000 thanks to early detection and better treatment.
The five-year survival rate for breast cancer diagnosed in early-localized stage is 98 percent.
Eighty percent of women who develop breast cancer have no family history of the disease. Women in the 18 to 27 age group who are at a higher-than-average risk for developing breast cancer include those:
HOW TO REDUCE YOUR RISK
who began menstruating before the age of 12;
who are obese and/or physically inactive;
who have a personal history of breast cancer or of biopsy-confirmed atypical hyperplasia;
who drink moderate to high amounts of alcohol daily;
who have a first-degree relative (mother, sister or daughter) diagnosed with breast cancer;
who have a genetic predisposition (genes BRCA 1 and BRCA2).
According to the National Cancer Institute, doctors cannot always explain why one person develops breast cancer and another doesn't. However, scientists have studied general patterns of cancer in the population to learn what things around us and what things we do in our lives may increase our chance of developing cancer. Some of these so-called risk factors can be controlled (such as our eating and exercise habits), while others cannot (such as our family history and genetic makeup). So although there is no guaranteed way to prevent breast cancer there are some things you can do now that may help reduce your risk:
Reduce fat in your diet. Fat should not exceed 30 percent of the total calories you eat daily. Transfatty acids found in some margarine, snack foods and bakery goods may be especially harmful.
Eat a diet high in fruits and vegetables.
Eat plant-based oils such as those found in olive oils and soybean oils. Soybeans also contain isoflavones (weak estrogens) that may help block estrogen receptors and lower estrogen levels and cell growth that may lead to breast cancer.
If you drink alcohol, drink only in moderation. One glass of beer a day can increase your risk by 10 percent because estrogen levels increase in response to alcohol.
Exercise at least four hours a week. Physical activity can also lower estrogen levels.
Tamoxifen and rolaxifen are drugs that have been shown to reduce risk of breast cancer by blocking estrogen cell receptors and studies of both drugs are currently underway. These drugs may be appropriate for high-risk women with a personal history of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or atypical dysplasia or those with a strong family history of breast cancer.
Early detection of breast cancer saves lives. When breast cancer is found and treated early (while in stage 1 or 2 in which it has not spread beyond the breast), the five-year survival rate is approximately 98 percent. If you are between the ages of 18 and 27, a combination of monthly breast self exams and a clinical breast exam every three years is the best way to detect breast cancer in its earliest and most treatable stages.
Breast Self Exam (BSE):
You should examine your breasts once a month to check for physical changes. Make it a habit. Monthly exams will allow you to become familiar with your breasts and learn what feels normal. The best time to conduct a breast self-exam is right after your period. Here are simple instructions for performing a monthly breast self-exam.
Clinical Breast Exam (CBE):
Women in their 20s and 30s should have a clinical breast exam performed by a health care professional every three years. During the exam, your health care provider will check your breasts for any changes, lumps or other warning signs of breast cancer.
Mammography is generally not recommended until age 40. However, if you have a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast lumps, talk to your health care provider. It may be appropriate to begin mammography before age 40 in certain circumstances.
Breast cancer is often detected in its earliest stage as an abnormality on a mammogram, well before it can be felt by the woman or by her health care provider. If a cancer has grown to the point where physical signs and symptoms are present, you may notice the following:
Breast lump or thickening
Swelling, redness or tenderness
Skin or nipple changes in color or texture
Dimpling or puckering of the skin
Nipple pain, discharge, scaliness or retraction (nipple sinks inward)
Lump in the armpit area
Breast pain is very commonly due to benign conditions and usually is not a symptom of breast cancer.
Regardless of your age, if you experience any of the above symptoms, see your health care provider immediately.
Information courtesy of the American Cancer Society, Breast Cancer Facts & Figures, 2005-2006
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